Friday, 18 August 2017

Thornhill Mayne Memorial (Public Library), a fine colonial building, Allahabad

Allahabad. Thornhill Mayne Memorial,

 Above image:  The  plaque  in the building carries this information: “This building which has received the name of the Thornhill-Mayne Memorial is erected in memory of Cudbert Bensley Thornhill, CSA &Francis Otway Mayne, C.B. both of Bengal Civil Service.

Who died the former on 11th July 1868 at sea off Aden, & the later On 30th August 1872 at  Allahabad.

The name preserves the memory of the close and uninterrupted friendship Which during their lives united them. The memorial itself bears lasting testimony to the affectionate regard in which they were built By those who caused it to be erected.”


Thornhill Mayne Memorial, located in Alfred Park garden is also  popularly known as Public Library. This monument has historical significance because  it served as the house of legislative assembly during the British era.  Allahabad was then the  capital of United Provinces.

Established in 1864, it is the biggest library in the state of Uttar Pradesh and the building was  designed by Richard Roskell Bayne, a British engineer.. It is  a good example of Scottish Baronial architecture with sharp pillars and turrets of granite and sandstone;  such designs need skill and imagination.  In 1879, the Public library was shifted to the present premises at Alfred Park.

The library is a nice place for book worms, it has huge collection on books, etc covering various subjects. it has  a collection of roughly 125,000 books, 40 types of magazines and different newspapers in Hindi, English, Urdu, etc besides   a collection of old government publications, parliamentary papers, and blue books of the 19th century, old manuscripts and journals.

The building known as Thornhill Mayne Memorial represents structural polychrome with lofty towers and arcaded cloisters.The cost of the building
in 1870 was  Rs.94,222. 00.  Commissioner of Allahabad, Mr. Mayne provided the funds and it was opened as a  memorial to the friendship of Lord Thornhill, the Commissioner of Allahabad and Mr. Mayne, the Collector. Subsequently converted into a library. 
'Thornhill-Mayne Memorial, Allahabad, indianheritag


Richard Roskell Bayne (1837–1901), an English architect who practised in Calcutta and other Indian cities between 1866–90 was an employee of the East Indian Railway. As a railway engineer, he built bridges, train stations, and bungalows, but he also had the opportunity to design monumental buildings such as the East India Railway Office and the New Market in Kolkata, the Hussainabad Clock Tower in Lucknow, the Oak Grove School in Mussoorie, and the palace of the Maharaja of Durbunga. When he retired, he left India and established himself as an architect in Victoria, B.C....


Allahabad High Court, one of first High Courts established in India

Allahabad High Court Building Allahabad High Court

Allahabad High Court Building Neeraj Garg

During the East India company rule Allahabad was the seat of Government of North-Western Provinces  and obviously and a High Court was established in 1834. But, it was moved over to Agra within a year. For administrative reasons, the High Court was shifted in 1868 back to  Allahabad. It was functioning in the Accountant General's office at the University of Allahabad complex. Allahabad High Court  
was  one of the first high courts  to be established

 Above image:  The above is an image of the second of the Maxim Cards showing the building of the Allahabad High Court. The two postage stamps depict the Allahabad High Court (Rs.15/- stamp) and the Lucknow Bench of the Allahabad High Court Rs.5/- stamp). The Cancellation is of New Delhi and is dated 13.03.2016............................
 Above image:  The above is an image of fifth of the Maxim Cards showing the building of Lucknow Bench of the Allahabad High Court. The two postage stamps depict the Allahabad High Court (Rs.15/- stamp) and the Lucknow Bench of the Allahabad High Court Rs.5/- stamp). The Cancellation is of New Delhi and is dated 13.03.2016.......................

 Established in 1869  the unique feature of this old  building is its double roofing, made with Allahabad Tiles on top, to beat the summer heat. This  building is most suitable to tropical climate. During the colonial time, there was no air-conditioning and countless buildings had high  ceiling with enough ventilation to keep the interior cool. Allahabad High court was built by Khan saheb Nizamuddin of Loha Mundi, Agra, India. He also donated the water fountain to the High court.


01. "But the building of the new High Court and of the new government offices, which are those excellent red rectangular two storied buildings still to be seen in Queens Road, was proceeding. The four blocks were designed by Colonel Peile, of the Public Works Department, the two on the west of Queens Road as the Government Secretariat and the Accountant General’s office respectively, and those on the east as the High court and the Board of Revenue. They are said to have cost thirteen lakhs, which by modern standards appears exceedingly cheap. The old ‘Gazetteer’ of the North-Western Provinces relates that the new High court was completed about 1870".

02. The name was correspondingly changed to the High Court of Judicature at Allahabad from 11 March 1919.

03. The Oudh Judicial Commissioner’s Court on 2 November 1925, the Oudh Judicial Commissioner’s Court was replaced by the Oudh Chief Court at Lucknow as per  the Oudh Civil Courts Act of 1925. It was enacted by the United Provinces Legislature with approval from the previous Governor General.

04. The Chief Court of Oudh was amalgamated with the High Court of Allahabad on 25 February 1948.

 05. When the state of Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal) was carved out of Uttar Pradesh in 2000, Allahabad high court ceased to have jurisdiction over the districts  that came under it.

06. The main seat of the court is at Allahabad and it  maintains a permanent circuit bench at Lucknow, the capital of the state. The maximum number of serving judges is 160, the highest in India.

The Mayo Hall, Bangalore - a lasting memorial to Viceroy Lord Mayo

The Mayo Hall, Bangalore

The Mayo Hall in Bangalore is an impressive building made of brick and mortar, still standing in its pristine glory without losing its historical and heritage values.  Like the Mayo Memorial at Allahabad, this structure was built in honor of  the then fourth Viceroy of India (1872), Lord Mayo who was killed while on official duty.  In the period 1869–1872, Mayo travelled extensively i across India and was greatly impressed, and stated that Britain 
should hold India "as long as the sun shines in heaven".When he was on an official visit to the Convict settlement at Port Blair, the Andaman Islands in February 1872, a convict by the name of Sher Ali Afridi, a  Pathan assassinated Sir Mayo with a knife.

It took a while to complete the building in Bangalore for various reasons; the work that began in 1875, was  completed only in 1883. Right from the outset the Bangalore Municipal Authority had begun functioning from here in 1883 on condition that the upper  floor should be made available to meeting of public nature without any charges. Institutions like the Mayo Hospital (1871) and the Mayo School of Arts at Lahore (1875), now in Pakistan  came up subsequently. The Mayo Hall is close to yet another colonial building previously called “station public offices”. It was built in 1904 and inaugurated by Sir James Bourdillion, the then British Resident in Mysore. This impressive block and Mayo Hall building enhance the beauty of this area, forming prominent part of the city. 

In  the Bangalore District Gazetteer (page No.946), it is mentioned that the cost of the building was  Rs 45,000.00 out of which Rs. 25,000.00 was met by way of public subscription. A sum of Rs 5,000 was spent on furnishing the place.
The Mayo Hall,

The Mayo Hall is adorned with  tall columns chandeliers, Greek cornices, Tuscan columns, stone arches, wooden floors and beautiful furnishing. The mouldings atop have minute friezes in mortar. The building has good elevation, pedimented windows, varied with key-storied arches, nicely executed consoles, finely executed balustraded ledges and typical Greek cornice, according to  the Gazetteer.

 The  Mayo Hall is atop a hilly area and offers a  panoramic view of adjacent places  such as Bangalore race course, Parade grounds, Brigade grounds, and the Lake Ulsoor.  It is  next to the Public Utility Building on M.G. Road

Lord MayoChughtai's Art Blog

Mayo Hall served as the office of the Bangalore Mahanagar Palike for a long time but today it has just a few offices of the BMP while some traffic courts also function inside the premises. BMP had built a fountain park in front of Mayo Hall to make it pleasant for the visitors.

Mayo Memorial Hall, Allahabad, a legacy of the British in UP

Mayo Memorial Hall, Allahabad - Government of Uttar Pradesh

Located near the Thornhill and Mayne Memorial in the city of Allahabad, UP,  the Mayo Memorial Hall is beautiful colonial building - a sort of Public Hall meant for public meetings, balls and receptions. It has a characteristic 180-ft high tower that is quite visible all around the site. Designed by R. Roskell Bayne, it was built in 1879 and named after Viceroy Lord Mayo (Richard Southwell Bourke, 6th Earl of Mayo KP GCSI PC ; 21 February 1822 – 8 February 1872), who was assassinated on  8 February, 1872. 

This murder of the highest public servant of British India   happened on his visit to the convict settlement at Port Blair, in the Andaman Islands  for inspection of prisons. He was knifed by one Sher Ali Afridi, an Afridi Pathan. He was buried in a Church graveyard in Johnstown, County Kildare, near his home at Palmerstown House, Ireland.

The decorations in the interior of the Memorial Hall were based on designs by Professor Gamble, of the South Kensington Museum, London.


Thursday, 17 August 2017

Kuthar fort - 800 year old fort in the wooded area, near Simla

Kuthar the Fort Land -

Because the incidence of foreign invasions was less and not highly risky centuries ago, the NE part of India do not have many big forts to boast of, unlike those in the NW part. However, in some places there are forts to guard against foreign invasions in the past. 

 The 800 years old Kuthar Fort is  one of the main tourist places to visit near Solan, 33.5 km from Solan and 52 km from Shimla. Originally built by the Gurkha Kings who ruled over this part of the land, the fort occupies a sprawling area of 52.8 sq km, consisting of  beautiful gardens, pools, fresh-water springs and ancient temples within the complex. 

kuthar fort near simla

Located atop the hill, part of Kuthar mountains at an altitude of about 1300 m, the Kuthar fort opens a vista of beautiful view of, the Simla valley  in the backdrop of the snow-clad peaks of the majestic Himalayan mountains and the near by  Subathu fort. Kuthar Fort that once served as the residence of the royal family of Kuthar was built in the Rajasthani style with Colonnades, convoluted pillars and arches, besides intricate wooden carvings and fine paintings.
In the interiors are found intricate wooden carvings and fine paintings that are simply catchy. a few parts of the fort were discovered recently and they are said to be just 80 years old. 

One fascinating feature that draws the attention of the tourists are the fresh water springs found within the  confines of the fort. This place, which is part of Kasauli range  is highly picturesque found amidst lush green hilly areas, very much similar to Gurkha Fort, Kunihar, and Kasauli hill station, the last one is just 15 km from here. Kuthar Palace is now a nice heritage resort, providing quiet ambiance to those who want to enjoy peace and tranquillity in the wooded area, far away from the madding crowd and urban ugliness. 

 The Kuthar Fort is in between the Subathu and Arki, barely one hour away from the Jubbarthi airport. In April 1948,  the state became part of Himachal Pardesh and  it was part of  Mahasu district till August 1972. Earlier, the Kuthar imperial state was under the control of  Rana of Kuthar-Arun Sen.

Kowdiar Palace - historical residence of Travancore rulers

Kowdiar Palace, Trivandrum
Kowdiar Palace, Trivandrum
There is no dearth of palaces in the state of Kerala. The princely state of Travancore had a close contact with the colonial rulers and to maintain their royal status and to entertain the visiting dignitaries, the rulers built palaces of beauty, elegance and simplicity. Simple in design and impressive, unlike the Mogul palaces or other Maharajahs' palaces, they are not highly embellished. They took pride in following the Kerala style of architecture, thus retaining the Kerala tradition of building design. Most of them have wooden ornate pillars beams, etc besides regular kerala features. Wood was widely used as Kerala occupies much of Western Ghat mountains.
The historical Kowdiar Palace was the residence of
Travancore Maharajahs and their families who were patrons of art, music and literature. Considered as one of fine palaces in Kerala, it is located in the capital city of Thiruvanathapuram and this three-storied building has as many as 150 rooms, wooden elevator and six beautiful steeples. As like other palaces in this state, it is built in typical Kerala style architecture that enhances the grandeur of this edifice.

Maharaja Moolam Thirunal Rama Varma,

Built during the reign of Sree Chithira Moolam Thirunal in 1934, this beautiful palace  was presented to Rani, Sethu Lekshmi Bayi on the occasion of her wedding - Pallikettu with  Col. G.V. Raja. Pursuant to Constitutional Amendment of 1971, the Royal family's estates were legally partioned and divided equally between  branches of the two Travancore Queens - Sethu Lakshmi Bayi and Sethu Parvathi Bayi. This Palace is owned by the heirs of Sethu Parvathi Bayi as it was built by her son Maharajah Sree  Chithira Thirunal

The last Raja Sree Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma is buried in the this palace garden. The  Kowdiar Palace is only 14 kms from Thiruvananthapuram International airport and only 6 kms from Thiruvananthapuram Central Railway Station.
The palace can not be accessed by the Public as the royal members of the family use it. Places like Raj Bhavan, Kanakakkunnu Palace and Napier museum are near by  and worth a visit.

Remakkable British Officer Lord Mark Cubbon, builder of Mysore!!

Daily thousands of people visit the beautiful lush green park called Cubbon park in the heart of Bangalore city. Have we ever thought about who was Cubbon and why is the park named after him? With some exception, almost everybody will be blinking his eyes!

Sir Mark Cubbon,Commissioner, mysore State.Revolvy

 Lieutenant-General Sir Mark Cubbon KCB (23 August 1775 – 23 April 1861) was a British army officer during the East India company rule in India. He was a stickler for discipline and made a mark for  himself as an excellent administrator of  extraordinary efficiency, foresight and commitments. He was the longest  the British Commissioner of Mysore in 1834 if Karnataka (the areas that were once under the Mysore kingdom) state is what is today, it is because of Sir Cubbon.. 

During his tenure, he vastly improved the administration and  established  law and order system, besides introducing effective judicial and economic reforms. which stood in good stead in the later years. Prompt actions and correct execution in various fields helped improve the economy of Mysore. He tirelessly worked hard until 1860 when his poor-health forced him to resign the job and he left for England for the first time since his arrival in India as an humble employee in 1800. In 1802, he joined 2nd Madras Battalion. To put it in a nut shell, he was a Karma Yogi, a dedicated  worker whose level of efficiency is unimaginable. This is one of the reasons why the Kingdom of Mysore during the tumultuous 1957 Sepoy Mutiny did not experience any impact. Further, there was nothing to complain about the administration of  Lord Cubbon who was considerate to the natives and never interfered in their religious freedom, etc. 

Statue of Mark Cubbon, High Court,Bangalore Wikimapi

Born  at the vicarage of Maughold, Isle of Man on 23 August 1775, his father was Vicar Thomas Cubbon and his mother was Margaret Wilks. Cubbon was their 7th child and had his early education in a local Parish school before studying under the tutorship of Maddrell of Ramsey. His uncle Mark Wilks got a job for him  and he joined EIC as a cadet in Calcutta, India in the summer of 1801. Being efficient and devoted to duty as he was, it is natural, he slowly claimed the ladder of promotions in succession; mostly he held military appointments  in many parts of India. He became a Major in November 1823 and later a Lieutenant-Colonel on 22 April 1826.

ISLE OF MAN Presentation Pack 1985 SIR MARK CUBBON 10% eBay

Upon the death of  Tipu Sultan in 1799, the British had restored the former Hindu royal family of Mysore under Krishna Raja Wodeyar III, then a minor child with (Purnaiah, minister in Tipu's rule) to administer the kingdom. As corruption and the unfair revenue system remained unsolved, this led to a serious uncontrollable uprising in 1831. At last, it was controlled with the help of the British. A commission was formed to go into the root causes of this uprising. Cubbon was one of the members and the report pointed out poor governance. Gov. General William Bentinck decided to put the kingdom under the direct British control with a resident commissioner -.  Cubbon  in June 1834. The Commissioner was literally the ruler of Mysore kingdom. and the responsibility fell on Sir Mark Cubbon to run the state.

 When the  British took over the administration on 19 October 1831,Cubbon's first  priority was law and order. From 1831 to 1881 the British controlled the kingdom. In those days,  across the kingdom disputes were settled with vigilantism that would end in murder of parties in dispute. Cubbon appointed Silladars or native horsemen who would provide services to the government for a fixed monthly charge. He gave them better pay to avoid corruption, etc. Thus he created a huge force of 4000 horses under various regiments in many taluks. Police force  was introduced in   July 1834, to prevent thefts, etc. He employed people to take care of civil services, road repairs, avoid sandalwood cutting,etc. The offenders had to pay  hefty fine. He favoured  a uniform code of law across all classes  in the Kingdom of Mysore. Particularly, he was quite bullish on crimes.

Cubbon introduced strict administration based on codes. There was no  room for corruption in the revenue department  and court officers holding extreme Wahabi tenets. He formed  nine departments or kacheris: revenue (dewan), posts (anche), police (,kandachar), public works (maramat), military (sowar and barr), medical, public cattle (Amrit Mahal)  and judiciary. Cubbon  encouraged the use of  Kannada and Marathi over Urdu or Hindi in the official work to avoid complications.

 When Cubbon was at the helm, Bangalore saw a lot of development, the Raj Bhavan - the nice residence is his creation that was built on the land he personally bought.  Officially called Chamarajendra Park, the Cubbon Park is a famous hangout for the physical exercise-conscious people. Sir Cubbon made vast improvement in developing the infrastructure  of Mysore .This included improvements of roads, communication, etc. Roads were  laid  connecting Bangalore to all major taluks. The first railway line between Bangalore and Jolarpet was laid. Communication improved with the laying of telegraph lines. Commerce flourished During Cubbon's tenure of 26 years, the State’s revenue rose to Rs 93 lakh, indeed a great accomplishment, starting from the scratch.

 Yet another milestone in Cubbon's administration was the  introduction of prompt salaries and pension schemes  to instil confidence in the government and to gain  the loyalties of government servants. Yet another administrative feature was the preparation of  an annual administration report, a unique process that began in 1856-57.

Grave of Mark Cubbon. Sir Mark Cubbon - Muaghold, Isle of ManWaymarking
 Sir Cubbon had a lasting friendship - more than 26 years with the Maharajah of Mysore. His poor health in 1861 abruptly forced him to leave for England. Unfortunately, he died on the way during the voyage at Suez on April 23, 1861. His mortal remains were taken  to  England by his friend Dr Campbell and laid to rest there. A notice that appeared in the Indian Statesman called him the “last of the old school of statesman”. The credit goes to Lord Bowring his successor for  naming of the park which is now known  as Cubbon Park and the statue in front of the present High Court building. Sir Cubbon was an outstanding personality, ever duty-bound till ill-health had struck him. He was one among countless  British officers who loved their job and also had great sympathy for the natives.

Wednesday, 16 August 2017

The Telegraph Office building Simla - one of the oldest automated phone exchanges!!

1922 Shimla, India - The Telegraph Office -Pinterest

Designed by the Scottish architect Scott Begg in 1922, the Telegraph Office building, on the Mall in Simla, Himachal Pradesh  is presently being occupied by BSNL  Hence, it goes by the name of BSNL building. It is a beautiful over ambitiously designed colonial building in which the Government telegraphic office functioned and made first link with the outside world from here. Begg was a consulting architect with the Government of India.  After replacing the old wooden spired structure, Begg built  this  brick building on a stone base. The grey ashlar stone work of the base is both attractive  as well as earthquake proof. The red brick color gives a pleasing appearance to  the building on  the Mall Road. 

Shimla, India - The Telegraph Office -Alamy

Though the building is stately and extravacant in design, no body can question its functionality. An interesting fact is the Simla Telegraph Office that later functioned was one of the world’s first automatic telephone exchanges with a capacity for 2,000 lines. A telephone exchange was established in the  1930s  that was  connected to England and the then Viceroy was the first person to speak down the line.

01. Latin inscription on the west side of the building reads as : "Molem aedificii multi construxerunt : rationem exegit I. Begg". ("Many men created the work of this stone building: the work was directed by J. Begg.)".
02. Scott Begg  also designed the Telegraph Office at Rangoon and Rangoon's Custom House as well.

Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, an epitome of patriotism and sacrifice

Rajkumari Amrit Kaur. Holiday Destinations in India - WordPress.

  Rajkumari Amrit Kaur  (2 February 1889 – 6 February 1964) was a freedom fighter, a great Gandhian and an active social reformer. Coming from a family of an affluent royal family, had she wished a comfortable life within the confines of her family palace, she could have led a life of pomp and power. Instead, she trod a different path which many royal women would avoid. Her parents were Rājā Harnam Singh and Rāni Harnām Singh, who was the daughter of a Bengali Presbyterian mother and an Anglican father.

Educated at Oxford University, England, Kaur's mind was more focused on India's freedom, poverty social disparity, etc., than on her royal family's problems.  Born on 2 February  1889 in Lucknow to a princely family of Kapurthala, a part of undivided India, Ms. Kaur took the credit of being the first Indian woman to hold the position of cabinet minister.  She was the first health minister of independent India and  served for ten years in the capacity. Besides, she was also responsible for starting the All India Medical Institute (AIIMS.). Now, it has many branches and they are premier medical education and research institutes.

Ms. Kaur with Rajajii and Nehru. Photo Division

What forced her to make her foray into an altogether a different cause - freedom fighting and social welfare of the Indian natives?  No Indian can forget the 1919 ( 13 April)
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre master-minded by that crazy Brig. Gen. Reginald Dyer whose regiment without prior warning shot  more than 1000 unarmed innocent men, women and children and injured  several hundred people.This mass murder at Jallianwala Bagh had a severe impact on the psyche of Amrit Kaur and she decided to follow the Gandhian path and take active role in the
Nationalist movement in Punjab. She  travelled across India expressing her protest against the British and explaining  the importance of freeing India from the oppressive British rule.

She co-founded the All India Women's Conference in 1927, became its secretary in 1930, and president in 1933. She participated in the 240-mile Dandi  salt yatra  on 12 March 1930 led by Mahatma Gandhi. As before, she was arrested and jailed by the British government. She was in  Northwest Frontier Province of Bannu and explained the role played by the INC toward freedom. After a lapse of 7 long years, the British government jailed her on sedition charges without any valid reason.

Rajkumurai Kaur with Gandhiji. WikiVisually
 Her aristocratic  background did not give her satisfaction and this ultimately led to the renunciation of her material goods,etc and became an  active member of Gandhiji's ashram at Sabarmati. She joined the ashram in 1934 and took up the austere life there despite her royal background. She served as one of Gandhi's secretaries for sixteen years. She continued her tirade against social inequality and gender discrimination. She worked hard for the advancement of Harijans in the society.  She was the first woman member of Hindustani Talimi Sangh. In 1942, she took part in the Quit India Movement, and the Raj authorities imprisoned her again.

She died in New Delhi on 6 February 1964. As a dynamic woman, she selflessly worked hard
to get rid of various evils in our society and the young girls of the present generation  should take inspiration from Rajkumari Amrit Kaur and take an active role in nation building.

Tuesday, 15 August 2017

Raj Kumari Gupta. - unsung woman freedom fighter!!

 In Indian history post 1947, no due attention was paid to the women freedom fighters, barring a few cases. it was a male-dominated world. In those conservative days, despite the societal restrictions these bold and highly motivated women came out of their closet stood side by side with male freedom fighters and scarified their social and family lives to get freedom for our countries. It is an indisputable fact, an unfortunate one that many women patriots remained behind the scene of activities - invisible, unknown and unsung. 

Among the women freedom fighters who  found a place in the Indian history books  invariably many came from affluent families or had  middle class backgrounds. They got the inspiration from their male relatives or parents who never stood in their way. They received support from their relatives too.  More often than not, in the case of highly spirited women hailing from ordinary or poor families with little education, the atmosphere was not conducive to them. By dint of hard work with commitments these women hit the forefront and got a name for themselves. Among them, you can pick
Raj Kumari Gupta who had a strong will power and determination l to do something for our country's freedom. 

Great Kakori train robbery aAlchetron


Above images:  The Kakori Conspiracy (or Kakori train robbery or Kakori Case) was a train robbery that took place between Kakori and, near Lucknow, on 9 August 1925 during the Indian Independence Movement. The robbery was organised by the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA). The robbery was conceived by Ram Prasad Bismil and Ashfaqullah Khan. It was to plunder a train carrying government money on one of the Northern Railway lines to get the  needed money for purchase of weaponry. The robbery plan was executed by Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Rajendra Lahiri, Chandrashekhar Azad, et al. They made only an abortive attempt.  ...................................... 


Hailing from  the little-known Banda zilla of Kanpur, she and her husband were close to Mahatma Gandhi and Chandrashekhar Azad. Kakori dacoity case was related to a sensational train robbery attempt made by  freedom fighters to lay their hands on government money to buy ammunition for the revolutionaries  and Chandrasekar Azad was one among the brains. This group did not want to follow the path of non-violence as followed  by Gandhiji as it did not yield the desired result. Raj Kumari played no less role in this matter than others. Unfortunately, her keen participation in the Kakori dacoity case is hardly  figured  in the chronicles of freedom movement. Rajkumari had  to carry out an important but dangerous assignment - supply of revolvers, etc., to those revolutionaries who were involved in the Kakori operation. Besides  she was also carrying secret messages to the freedom fighters. When carrying weapons, To avoid being caught, she safely hid the firearms in her undergarment, casually wearing Khadi clothes  to deliver them. To divert attention, she took her three-year-old son in tow. 

As ill-luck  would have it, she was caught and arrested. In the aftermath of this  incident,
her husband's family disowned her and she had to leave the marital home. 

 Note: Correct image of Ms. Rajkumari Gupta is available

Monday, 14 August 2017

Tiruppur Kumaran, a daring freedom fighter and nationalist

Tiruppur Kumran. YouTube

Tiruppur Kumaran,Tamil Spider

When India's independence struggle was in full swing across India, countless patriotic people in Tamil Nadu joined the struggle ans showed their solidarity with other Indian freedom fighters.  That India got her freedom  from Britain with ease without losing people in thousands is a matter of conjecture. People in thousands lost their lies; many heroes died unsung. Millions died in Bengal famine of 1770 and 1943, the latter being  artificially created by Churchill and his cronies who committed genocide on the Indian soil. The British had never loosened their tight grip on India. In the wake of WWII Britain having taken severe beating, India became unmanageable and the British had no choice except to  leave India  for good. India could have gotten her freedom long ago, but the conservative British politicians, in particular, Winston Churchill never wanted Britain to leave India as it was the main source of income for the British. It is a known fact that the British economy had vastly improved since Clive and others  grabbed rich Bengal in the 18th century. The plunder of Bengal directly contributed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain. With the money amassed from Bengal, the British used it  to invest in British industries such as textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution and greatly increased British wealth. On the other hand, this led to  de-industrialization and famines in Bengal. In the following centuries Britain grabbed the Indian states one by one, using various ruses. Indians were paused to the point of asking the British government to leave India.

Durgapur Adda

In the 1930s, the freedom struggle in India occurred sporadically and may patriots came forward unmindful of their lives and did something and got a lasting name for their sacrifice, bravery and patriotism. One such person was Kumaran of Madras Presidency (now Tamil Nadu).

Kumaran also known as Tiruppur Kumaran (04th October 1904 – 11 January 1932) was an Indian revolutionary. Born in Chennimalai, Erode district in Tamil Nadu, he founded what was called Desa Bandhu Youth Association and  on occasions led protests against the British atrocities and misrule. He could not brook the poor treatment meted out to the Indian natives. He was sad that racial discrimination, exploitation of natives were very much across India. 

Freedom fighter Tiruppur Kumaran amudu - blogger

During a protest march against the British government on 11 January 1932, Kumaran  died from injuries sustained from a police assault on the banks of Noyyal River in Tiruppur. At that time, the British government banned the National flag created by the Indian Nationalists and gave severe punishment to those who had held the flag or hoisted it on buildings, etc. 

Kumaran, courageous as he was, was facing death without fear. Most importantly when dying, he was firmly holding the Indian National  flag and he had never let it go off his hand.  This gave rise to the epithet Kodi Kaththa Kumaran (Kumaran who held the flag).

Memorial, Tiruppur Kumaran,
In October 2004, India post issued a  commemorative stamp  to mark his 100th birth anniversary. There is a  statue  in Tiruppur city in his honor which is often used as a focal point for public demonstrations